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A Genetic Titration of Membrane Composition in C. elegans Reveals its Importance for Multiple Cellular and Physiological Traits.

Authors
  • Devkota, Ranjan1
  • Kaper, Delaney1
  • Bodhicharla, Rakesh1
  • Henricsson, Marcus2
  • Borén, Jan2
  • Pilon, Marc1
  • 1 Dept.Chemistry and Molecular Biology, Univ. Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. , (Sweden)
  • 2 Dept. Molecular and Clinical Medicine/Wallenberg Laboratory, Institute of Medicine, Univ. of Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. , (Sweden)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Genetics
Publisher
The Genetics Society of America
Publication Date
Jun 14, 2021
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1093/genetics/iyab093
PMID: 34125894
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The composition and biophysical properties of cellular membranes must be tightly regulated to maintain the proper functions of myriad processes within cells. To better understand the importance of membrane homeostasis, we assembled a panel of five C. elegans strains that show a wide span of membrane composition and properties, ranging from excessively rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and rigid to excessively rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and fluid. The genotypes of the five strain are, from most rigid to most fluid: paqr-1(tm3262);paqr-2(tm3410), paqr-2(tm3410), N2 (wild-type), mdt-15(et14);nhr-49(et8), and mdt-15(et14);nhr-49(et8);acs-13(et54). We confirmed the excess SFA/rigidity-to-excess PUFA/fluid gradient using the methods of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and lipidomics analysis. The five strains were then studied for a variety of cellular and physiological traits and found to exhibit defects in: permeability, lipid peroxidation, growth at different temperatures, tolerance to SFA-rich diets, lifespan, brood size, vitellogenin trafficking, oogenesis and autophagy during starvation. The excessively rigid strains often exhibited defects in opposite directions compared to the excessively fluid strains. We conclude that deviation from wild-type membrane homeostasis is pleiotropically deleterious for numerous cellular/physiological traits. The strains introduced here should prove useful to further study the cellular and physiological consequences of impaired membrane homeostasis. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Genetics Society of America.

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