Iron is a vital nutrient to bacteria, not only in the basal metabolism but also for virulent species in infection and pathogenicity at their hosts. Despite its relevance, the role of iron in Xanthomonas citri infection, the etiological agent of citrus canker disease, is poorly understood in contrast to other pathogens, including other members of the Xanthomonas genus. In this review, we present iron assimilation pathways in X. citri including the ones for siderophore production and siderophore-iron assimilation, proven to be key factors to virulence in many organisms like Escherichia coli and Xanthomonas campestris. Based on classical iron-related proteins previously characterized in E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and also Xanthomonadaceae, we identified orthologs in X. citri and evaluated their sequences, structural characteristics such as functional motifs, and residues that support their putative functions. Among the identified proteins are TonB-dependent receptors, periplasmic-binding proteins, active transporters, efflux pumps, and cytoplasmic enzymes. The role of each protein for the bacterium was analyzed and complemented with proteomics data previously reported. The global view of different aspects of iron regulation and nutrition in X. citri virulence and pathogenesis may help guide future investigations aiming the development of new drug targets against this important phytopathogen.