Disease classification, or nosology, was historically driven by careful examination of clinical features of patients. As technologies to measure and understand human phenotypes advanced, so too did classifications of disease, and the advent of genetic data has led to a surge in genetic subtyping in the past decades. Although the fundamental process of refining disease definitions and subtypes is shared across diverse fields, each field is driven by its own goals and technological expertise, leading to inconsistent and conflicting definitions of disease subtypes. Here, we review several classical and recent subtypes and subtyping approaches and provide concrete definitions to delineate subtypes. In particular, we focus on subtypes with distinct causal disease biology, which are of primary interest to scientists, and subtypes with pragmatic medical benefits, which are of primary interest to physicians. We propose genetic heterogeneity as a gold standard for establishing biologically distinct subtypes of complex polygenic disease. We focus especially on methods to find and validate genetic subtypes, emphasizing common pitfalls and how to avoid them.