It has been widely reported that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II region provides the main genetic contribution to multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility. However, recent studies have suggested that the MHC class I region may also contribute to the development of MS. In this study, we investigated the possible association of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B, MHC class I chain-related gene B (MICB) and MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA) genes, located in the MHC class I region, with MS susceptibility. For this purpose, we analyzed the distribution of HLA-DR, HLA-B, MICB and MICA alleles in 121 MS patients and 156 healthy controls. Neither HLA-B nor MICA alleles were found to be associated with MS susceptibility, and only the frequency of HLA-DRB1*01 allele was found to be increased in controls (31% vs 14%, P(c) = 0.011). However, MICB*004 allele frequency was significantly increased in MS patients (46.3% vs 23.3%, P(c) < 0.001, odds ratio = 2.82, 95% confidence interval = 1.68-4.73). Although, MICB*004 and HLA-DRB1*15 belong to the AH 7.1 ancestral haplotype, the association of MICB*004 to MS susceptibility was found to be independent of HLA-DRB1*15 in our population. This and previous studies clearly suggest that the MHC class I, in addition to class II, could be involved in MS susceptibility.