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Genetic defects in human azoospermia

  • Ghieh, Farah
  • Mitchell, Valérie
  • Mandon-Pepin, Beatrice
  • Vialard, François
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2019
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As with many other diseases, genetic testing in human azoospermia was initially restricted to karyotype analyses (leading to diagnostic chromosome rearrangement tests for Klinefelter and other syndromes). With the advent of molecular biology in the 1980s, genetic screening was broadened to analyses of Y chromosome microdeletions and the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Decades later, the emergence of whole-genome techniques has led to the identification of other genetic defects associated with human azoospermia. Although TEX11 and ADGRG2 defects are frequently described in men with azoospermia, most of the causal gene defects found to date are private (i.e. identified in a small number of consanguineous families). Here, we provide an up-to-date overview of all the types of genetic defects known to be linked to human azoospermia and try to give clinical practice guidelines according to azoospermia phenotype. Along with homozygous mutations, polymorphisms and epigenetic defects are also briefly discussed. However, as these variations predispose to azoospermia, a specific review will be needed to compile data on all the particular genetic variations reported in the literature

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