Quantitative trait loci for fat deposition and carcass traits have been identified in the vicinity of the gene encoding phosphodiesterase 1B (PDE1B) on bovine chromosome 5. Therefore, the PDE1B gene can be considered as a positional and functional candidate gene for carcass traits in beef cattle. This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PDE1B gene and to evaluate their associations with carcass traits in Korean cattle. Eight SNPs, g.440T>G, g.17122A>G, g.17507A>C, g.17575A>G, g.17607T>C, g.17609C>A, g.17692C>T, and g.17707C>G, were identified in the region ranged from exon 1 to intron 6. Five of them were used for association analysis because of their availability of restriction fragment length polymorphisms. As a result, g.17122A>G in intron 3 was significantly associated with backfat thickness (BFT), and g.17507A>C in exon 5 was associated with longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA, P < 0.05). Animals with the AG genotype of g.17122 had thicker BFT than those with the AA genotype. Animals with the AA or AC genotype of g.17507A>C had larger LMA than those with the CC genotype. We suggested the PDE1B gene as a candidate gene for carcass traits of beef cattle. Fine mapping would be required for application to marker-assisted selection.