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Generalization of Faraday's Law to include nonconservative spin forces.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Physical review letters
Publication Date
Volume
98
Issue
24
Pages
246601–246601
Identifiers
PMID: 17677979
Source
Medline

Abstract

The usual Faraday's Law E=-dPhi/dt determines an electromotive force E which accounts only for forces resulting from the charge of electrons. In ferromagnetic materials, in general, there exist nonconservative spin forces which also contribute to E. These might be included in Faraday's Law if the magnetic flux Phi is replaced by [Planck's constant/(-e)]gamma, where gamma is a Berry phase suitably averaged over the electron spin direction. These contributions to E represent the requirements of energy conservation in itinerant ferromagnets with time dependent order parameters.

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