We have investigated a closed set of equations for the quark propagator, which has been obtained earlier within a new, nonperturbative approach to two-dimencional covariant gauge QCD. It is shown that this theory implies quark confinement (the quark propagator has no poles, indeed), as well as dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry (a chiral symmetry preserving solution is forbidden). The above-mentioned set of equations can be exactly solved in the chiral limit. We develop an analytical formalism, the so-called chiral perturbation theory at the fundamental quark level, which allows one to find solution for the quark propagator in powers of the light quark masses. Each correction satisfies the differential equation, which can be formally solved. We develop also an analytical formalism which alows one to find solution for the quark propagator in the inverse powers of the heavy quark masses. IT coincides with free heavy quark propagator up to terms of order $1/m_Q^3$, where $m_Q$ is the heavy quark mass. So this solution automatically possesses the heavy quark flavor symmetry up to terms of order $1/m_Q$. At the same time, we have found a general solution for the heavy quark propagator, which by no means can be reduced to the free one.