Total clonogen sterilisation was observed when the cells were grown as three-dimensional spheroids and treated with 7 MBq/ml [131I]MIBG. The added benefit of radiation crossfire was demonstrated by the improvement in cell kill achieved by prolongation of the maintenance of [131I]MIBG treated spheroids in their three-dimensional form, before disaggregation and clonogenic assay. When left intact for 48 h after treatment, spheroid cure was achieved by exposure to 6 MBq/ml [131I]MIBG. These results demonstrate that the efficiency of cell kill by [131I]MIBG targeted therapy is strongly dependent on beta-particle crossfire irradiation. This gene therapy/targeted radiotherapy strategy has potential for [131I]MIBG mediated cell kill in tumours other than those derived from the neural crest.