The pancreas is a key organ involved in digestion and endocrine functions in the body. The major diseases of the pancreas include pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, cystic diseases, pancreatic divisum, islet cell tumors, endocrine tumors, diabetes mellitus, and pancreatic pain induced by these diseases. While various therapeutic methodologies have been established to date, however, the improvement of conventional treatments and establishment of novel therapies are essential to improve the efficacy. For example, conventional therapeutic options, including chemotherapy, are not effective against pancreatic cancer, and despite improvements in the last decade, the mortality rate has not declined and is estimated to become the second cause of cancer-related deaths by 2030. Therefore, continuous efforts focus on the development of novel therapeutic options. In this review, we will summarize the progress toward the development of gene therapies for pancreatic diseases, with an emphasis on recent preclinical studies and clinical trials. We aim to identify new areas for improvement of the current methodologies and new strategies that will lead to safe and effective gene therapeutic approaches in pancreatic diseases.