Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the inability to attain and/or maintain penile erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. ED is a highly prevalent health problem with considerable impact on the quality of life of men and their partners. Although the treatment of ED with oral phosphodiesterase type V (PDE5) inhibitors is effective in a wide range of individuals, it is not efficacious in all patients. The failure of PDE5 inhibitors happens mainly in men with diabetes, non-nerve sparing radical prostatectomy, and high disease severity. Therefore, improved therapies based on a better understanding of the fundamental issues in erectile physiology and pathophysiology have recently been proposed. Here, we summarize studies on ED treatment using gene and stem cell therapies. Adenoviral-mediated intracavernosal transfer of therapeutic genes, such as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and RhoA/Rho kinase and mesenchymal stem cell-based cell and gene therapy strategy for the treatment of age- and diabetes-related ED are the focus of this review.