The oral microbiome consists of a remarkably diverse group of 500-700 bacterial species. The microbial etiology of periodontal disease is similarly complex. Of the ~400 bacterial species identified in subgingival plaque, at least 50 belong to the genus Treponema. As periodontal disease develops and progresses, T. denticola transitions from a low to high abundance species in the subgingival crevice. Changes in the overall composition of the bacterial population trigger significant changes in the local physical, immunological and physiochemical conditions. For T. denticola to thrive in periodontal pockets, it must be nimble and adapt to rapidly changing environmental conditions. The purpose of this chapter is to review the current understanding of the molecular basis of these essential adaptive responses, with a focus on the role of two component regulatory systems with global regulatory potential.