Pregnancy can be considered as an allogeneic transplant and preeclampsia can be seen as a failure of the acceptance mechanisms of this transplant as occurs in acute organ transplant rejection. Some genetic polymorphisms may be involved in its pathogenesis. Since the kidney is one of the organs mainly involved in preeclampsia, our study attempted to determine the frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms of DNA (SNP) in 3 genes (adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1)/multi drug reactivity 1 (MDR1) gene, interleukin 10 gene and tumor necrosis factor α gene) which are targets of immunosuppressive therapies and related to acute renal rejection. The study was an observational, monocentric, case-control study. We enrolled 20 women with severe preeclampsia and 10 women age-matched with regular pregnancy. Continuous variables were compared by the Student’s t- test for independent variables or using the Mann-Whitney test depending on their distribution. We used Fisher test to compare categorical variables between cases and controls, while we used logistic regression model to evaluate which risk factor was associated with preeclampsia. Although there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups, we found different percentages of two of the polymorphisms considered (rs1045642 and rs2032582 in the gene ABCB1). Despite these results, our work may be helpful for future research to better understand the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.