Confluent monolayers of WI-38 human diploid fibroblasts can be stimulated to divide by fresh medium containing 30% fetal-calf serum. Up to 80% of the cells are stimulated to divide, with a peak of DNA synthesis between 15 and 21 hr. 1 hr after the change of medium there is a 70% rise in chromatin template activity. Cycloheximide inhibited the increase in chromatin template activity. A requirement for RNA synthesis was investigated by incubating stimulated and unstimulated cells with 10 μg/ml of actinomycin D. In spite of a 95% inhibition of RNA synthesis in whole cells, purified chromatin from stimulated cells showed the usual increase in template activity. These experiments implicate a requirement for protein synthesis in template activation, and imply that the synthesis of this (or these) protein(s) is independent of RNA synthesis and regulated by a purely translational mechanism.