Affordable Access

Gender-specific regulation of cardiovascular function: estrogen as key player.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994)
Publication Date
Volume
11
Issue
1
Pages
9–38
Identifiers
PMID: 15280095
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

This review provides an overview of gender-specific differences in the incidence and development of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart failure and the corresponding myocardial remodeling. The review discusses the possible mechanisms by which estrogen affords a beneficial effect on cardiovascular function via genomic vs non genomic regulation; estrogen receptor-dependent vs estrogen receptor-independent pathways, specific signal transduction cascades, especially those involving protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), as well as their downstream targets, such as nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase, cytochrome P450 (CYP), NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase. Having considered the essential role of the microcirculation in the control of vascular resistance in vivo, estrogen-related regulation of microvascular function and blood pressure is highlighted. Attention is focused on the effects of estrogen on pressure (myogenic)-dependent and flow/shear stress-dependent mechanisms of arterioles, which contribute significantly to the control of local blood flow and peripheral resistance via alterations in the release of endothelial mediators, such as nitric oxide, prostaglandins and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor.

Statistics

Seen <100 times