We utilize data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth young adult sample (N = 1,488) to investigate whether gender role attitudes and the occupation of and transition to three adult roles (i.e., employment, marriage, and parenthood) contribute to the maintenance of the gender gap in the frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Our results indicate that traditional gender role attitudes are related to less frequent drinking for both men and women, but role attitudes are not associated with the number of drinks consumed. We also find that employment and transitions to employment increase the frequency and quantity of drinking, but less so for women compared to men. Furthermore, marriage, parenthood, and transitions to parenthood are related to less frequent drinking for women only. In terms of the number of drinks consumed, only employment and transitions to employment distinguish men and women. Employment is related to increased quantity of drinking for men, but decreased drinking for women, while transitions to employment have no effect on men, but do decrease the amount of drinking for women. Marriage decreases the number of drinks consumed equally for both men and women.