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Gender Effects on HIV-Associated White Matter Alterations: A Voxel-Wise DTI Study

Authors
  • Smith, Clifford A.1
  • Stebbins, Glenn T.1
  • Bartt, Russell E.1, 2, 3
  • Kessler, Harold A.1, 2, 3
  • Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin M.1, 2, 3
  • Martin, Eileen4
  • Bammer, Roland5
  • Moseley, Michael E.5
  • 1 Rush University Medical Center, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA , Chicago (United States)
  • 2 John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, IL, USA , Chicago (United States)
  • 3 Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center, Chicago, IL, USA , Chicago (United States)
  • 4 University of Illinois—Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA , Chicago (United States)
  • 5 Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA , Stanford (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Brain Imaging and Behavior
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Jun 18, 2008
Volume
2
Issue
3
Pages
177–191
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s11682-008-9024-5
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
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Abstract

Sexual dimorphisms within the human brain are well-documented. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with atrophy and microstructural white matter alterations, yet sex-specific dimorphic brain alterations in persons living with HIV have not been systematically examined. To address this issue, we evaluated regional differences in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in adults with and without HIV utilizing diffusion tensor imaging. Through a voxel-by-voxel analytic approach, sexual dimorphisms in NAWM anisotropy and diffusivity were identified. In comparison to seronegative men and women, HIV infection contributed to a decline in the distribution of anisotropic differences between the sexes. Alterations in diffusivity were more complex, with seropositive women demonstrating an increase in regional diffusivity, while seropositive men demonstrated a reduction in regional differences. Sex by serostatus interactions within the left frontal lobe and bilateral thalamic region were identified. These results suggest that HIV contributes to sex-specific microstructural NAWM alterations, such that sex and serostatus differentially alter the integrity of the neuronal matrix.

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