Diabetes is a widely recognized and common cause of mortality, morbidity, and excess cost in the health care system. Type 2 diabetes is specifically on the rise, particularly in association with the increasing obesity rate. Substantial literature has examined differences in behavior across genders and potential effect on disease. However, based on a literature review, little has been done to evaluate differences in patterns of diabetes related to inpatient care across genders and to link these differences with potential explanations related to differences in care-seeking behavior, treatment compliance, and lifestyle choices. This review and analysis of national inpatient data demonstrates substantial differences associated with gender in patterns of hospital-based care in patients with type 2 diabetes. Men are more likely to be admitted for diabetes-related conditions and to present with blood sugars at extreme levels, including acutely elevated and dangerous blood sugar levels. When considering these findings in conjunction with the existing literature, it can be concluded that these differences are primarily reflective of variances in care-seeking behavior and long-term adherence to prescribed medications. Policies that promote expansion of health care benefits to include coverage for men at risk for type 2 diabetes, aggressive education and treatment programs, and expanded prescription drug coverage are necessary to reduce gender discrepancies in patterns of hospitalization and to improve outcomes.