Gender differences in the effect of 20 days bed rest (BR) on muscle strength were evaluated in voluntary 11 male and 7 female students. Maximum Isometric Voluntary Contractions (MVC) of 4 right arm muscles (RAM), 5 right leg muscles (RLM), and 2 body trunk muscles were measured with an isometric dynamometer, respectively. Muscle masses (MM) of right arm and leg and body trunk were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. The maximum cross sectional area (CSAmax) of right m. quadriceps femoris was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Elbow flexion MVC in males and all MVC of RLM except knee flexion in both males and females were decreased (p<0.05), but elbow extension MVC in females was increased (p<0.05), while all of other MVC only tended to decrease. However, the decrements in leg MVC were not correlated to the leg MM, and also the decrement in knee extension was not correlated to the CSAmax of m. quadriceps. The reduction of MVC of antigravity muscles might be caused not only by a decrease in MM but also by other factors. The greater decrements of leg MVC during BR were the higher initial level in males, but the inverse was observed in females. However, this discrepancy between males and females cannot be explained in the present study.