This 6-month follow-up study compared 64 men and 37 women hospitalized for cocaine dependence. Drug histories, sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, and Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores were compared during hospitalization; cocaine use and ASI scores were compared at 6 months. During hospitalization, women had significantly more severe family and social problems; men had more antisocial personality disorder. At follow-up, significantly more women had remained abstinent: family/social problem severity no longer differed. This replicates previous research showing better treatment outcome for cocaine dependent women. This may be related to specific characteristics of women who enter mixed-gender cocaine treatment programs.