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Gender differences in the association of living and working conditions and the mental health of trafficking survivors.

Authors
  • Iglesias-Rios, Lisbeth1
  • Harlow, Siobán D2
  • Burgard, Sarah A3
  • Kiss, Ligia4
  • Zimmerman, Cathy4
  • 1 Department of Epidemiology, Center for Midlife Science, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2029, USA. [email protected]
  • 2 Department of Epidemiology, Center for Midlife Science, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2029, USA.
  • 3 Department of Sociology, College of Literature Science, and the Arts, University of Michigan, 500 S State St, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.
  • 4 Department of Global Health and Development, Gender Violence and Health Centre, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 15-17 Tavistock Place, WC1H 9SH, London, UK.
Type
Published Article
Journal
International journal of public health
Publication Date
Sep 01, 2019
Volume
64
Issue
7
Pages
1015–1024
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s00038-019-01269-2
PMID: 31243470
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

To assess the association of living and working conditions experienced during trafficking with mental health of female and male survivors. We analyzed a cross-sectional study of 1015 survivors who received post-trafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Modified Poisson regression models were conducted by gender to estimate prevalence ratios. For females, the elevated prevalence of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms was associated with adverse living conditions, while for males the prevalence of anxiety (PR = 2.21; 95% CI 1.24-3.96) and depression (PR = 2.63; 95% CI 1.62-4.26) more than doubled and almost tripled for PTSD (PR = 2.93; 95% CI 1.65-5.19) after adjustment. For males in particular, excessive and extreme working hours per day were associated with more than a four- and threefold greater prevalence of PTSD. Being in a detention center or jail was associated with all three mental health outcomes in males. Providers and stakeholders need to consider the complex mental health trauma of the differential effects of living and working conditions for female and male survivors during trafficking to support treatment and recovery.

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