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Gender differences of aortic wave reflection and influence of menopause on central blood pressure in patients with arterial hypertension

  • Hong, Valeria Aparecida Costa
  • Muela, Henrique Cotchi Simbo
  • Macedo, Thiago Andrade
  • Sales, Allan Robson Kluser
  • Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido
Publication Date
Jun 24, 2018
Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da Universidade de São Paulo (BDPI/USP)
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Abstract Background Evidences suggest that central hemodynamics indexes are independent predictors of future cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Multiple factors have been pointed to have potential influence on central aortic function: height, heart rate, left ventricular ejection duration and blood pressure level. Data related to the influence of gender and postmenopausal status on aortic waveform reflection is scarce. We aim to evaluate the impact of gender and menopause on central blood pressure of hypertensive patients. Methods In a cross sectional study 122 hypertensive patients (52 men and 70 women) were studied. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure (BP) levels ≥140/90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive drugs. Central arterial pressure, augmentation index (AIx) and augmentation index normalized to 75 bpm (AIx75) were obtained using applanation tonometry. Menopause and postmenopause history were accessed by a direct series of questions. Postmenopause was defined as at least one year since last menstruation. Patients were paired by age, gender and menopausal status, and the data were compared considering gender and menopausal status. Results Height and weight were significantly lower in women than in men at the same age. Conversely, AIx (32.7 ± 9.8% vs. 20.1 ± 11.7%, p < 0.01), AIx75 (29.6 ± 6.7% vs. 18.3 ± 9.4%, p < 0.01) and central systolic blood pressure (136 ± 30 vs. 125 ± 23 mmHg, p = 0.03) were higher in women than men. The menopausal women (mean age of menopause = 48 years) had the worst indexes of aortic wave reflection, compared to men at the same age and younger women. Conclusion Hypertensive women had both higher reflected aortic pressure waveform and central blood pressure indexes than hypertensive men, and these findings were worsened by the menopausal status.

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