In the study social support during illness, in health behavior and coping with disease were investigated with respect to the interrelationship with each other and to gender differences. The aim of the study was to examine whether there is a gender difference in social support during illness and to highlight the gender aspects of relationships between social support, health behavior and coping with illness. Data on social support were collected from patients by means of a questionnaire and interviews were conducted with healthcare experts to complement the picture. Women received significantly less positive support than men. This finding matches the experts' views retrieved from the interviews, which also indicated that men receive more support by their social environment than women. Both the literature and the interviews provided similar indications for gender differences in health behavior and coping with disease due to socialization-related influencing factors. This is also reflected in the supportive behavior and corresponding expectations for support of women and men. It can be concluded that the reflection of these gender-specific influencing factors is crucial for the treatment and care of patients and their relatives.