The signal half of an entangled twin-beam, generated using spontaneous parametric downconversion, interrogates a region of space that is suspected of containing a target, and has high loss and high (entanglement-breaking) background noise. A joint measurement is performed on the returned light and the idler beam that was retained at the transmitter. An optimal quantum receiver, whose implementation is not yet known, was shown to achieve 6 dB gain in the error-probability exponent relative to that achieved with a single coherent-state (classical) laser transmitter and the optimum receiver. We present two structured optical receivers that achieve up to 3 dB gain in the error exponent over that attained with the classical sensor. These are to our knowledge the first designs of quantum-optical sensors for target detection, which can be readily implemented in a proof-of-concept experiment, that appreciably outperform the best classical sensor in the low-signal-brightness, high-loss and high-noise operating regime.