The examinations were performed in 418 patients with malignancy or an ulcer of the stomach. In all cases the Cancer Registry of Norway was asked for the final diagnosis and date of death. The diagnosis of malignancy was based on histology on operated or autopsy specimens, and the surviving cases were re-examined by answering a questionnaire. At the time of the primary examination a total of 103 cases of malignancies were found, of whom 41 were women. 84 patients had not been operated on previously. Among these 7 cases of early carcinoma were found. In 19 patients a partial gastrectomy had been performed. A false diagnosis of benign lesion was given on biopsy in 2 per cent, by gastroscopy in 8, and by X-ray examination in 31 per cent. A definite diagnosis of malignancy was made correctly by the same procedures in 95, 53 and 16 per cent, respectively. After 30 months of observation 16 cases of malignant lesions were reported among the patients (315) who had an ulcer of the stomach with benign histology on directed biopsy at the primary examination. A false benign diagnosis had been made in 33 per cent of 119 with malignancy by X-ray examination, in 10 per cent by gastroscopy, and in 15 per cent by histology on biopsy. The corresponding percentages in the total material of cases with benign and malignant lesions were 10.2, 2.9, and 4.3, respectively. In cases with previous partial gastrectomy, and in those with early cancers much higher rates of false negative diagnosis of malignancy has so far been suggested in 12 per cent of cases with benign ulcers, a gastroscopical diagnosis has been suggested in 22 per cent, and a bioptical in none. A combination of diagnostic procedures provided a correct diagnosis of malignancy in 118 out of 119 patients.