Gas-forming infections on the surgical service are usually due to anaerobic microorganisms such as clostridia, peptostreptococci or bacteroides, or to one of the aerobic coliforms. Factors that predispose to the development of gas infections include lower extremity vascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Early treatment based on the inital Gram-stain study as well as the clinical presentation is helpful in reducing tissue losses and increasing overall survival. Treatment for nonclostridial gas infections includes prompt adequate surgical debridement and appropriate parenteral antibiotics. When available, hyperbaric oxygen should be added to the treatment plan in all extensive clostridial infections.