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Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Metabolites Profiling and Biological Activities of Various Capsicum annum cultivars

  • ahmad;, rizwan
Publication Date
Apr 09, 2022
DOI: 10.3390/plants11081022
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This study evaluates the quality variation for twenty-seven capsicum fruit (CF) samples, in terms of their volatile oil composition and biological activities. The GCMS analysis revealed the presence of seventy one chemical compounds from different chemical classes with an average (%) composition of: 26.13 (alcohols) > 18.82 (hydrocarbons) > 14.97 (esters) > 3.08 (ketones) > 1.14 (others) > 1.07 (acids) > 0.72 (sugar) > 0.42 (aldehydes) > 0.15 (amino compounds). Alcohols and hydrocarbons were the most abundant in these CF samples with 1-Decanol, 2-octyl- and docosanoic acid, docosyl ester as the major components, respectively. The % inhibition in cytotoxicity assays was observed in the range of 9–47 (MCF7) and 4–41 (HCT116) whereas, the zone of inhibition (mm) for the antimicrobial activity was found to be 0.0–17 (P. aeruginosa) > 0.0–13 (E. coli and S. aureus). Moreover, the samples with the largest zone of inhibition in the agar-well-diffusion method (C16, C19, and C26) upon further evaluation presented the least MIC and MBC values against P. aeruginosa with an MIC and MBC (µg/mL) of 6.3 and 12.5, respectively. The outcome for GCMS and biological activities were further supported by statistical tools of PCA and K-mean cluster analysis which confirmed the C16 CF sample with the best activity followed by C5, C13 (the best cytotoxic), and C19, C26 (the best antimicrobial). The statistical analysis exhibited a high Chi-square value of 5931.68 (GCMS) and 32.19 (biological activities) with p = 0.00 for KMO and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity. The 27-CF samples were effectively distinguished based on quality variation, and the C16 CF sample exhibited significant potential for further study.

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