Refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC) is a special type of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with predominant cough resistant to pragmatic standard anti-reflux therapy including antisecretory agents alone or in combination with promotility agents but with a favorable response to intensified anti-reflux treatment. The condition is not rare and is difficult to treat. Neuromodulators such as baclofen and gabapentin are considered potential therapeutic options for refractory GERC. Limited data indicate that gabapentin and baclofen could attenuate the cough symptom in patients with refractory GERC by blockade of gastroesophageal reflux or by direct antitussive effects. However, no study has compared the efficacy of these two drugs in treatment of refractory GERC. In an open-labeled randomized clinical study, we demonstrated that, as add-on therapy, gabapentin and baclofen had a similar prevalence of therapeutic success for suspected refractory GERC but gabapentin may be more preferable because of its fewer central side effects. The efficacy of baclofen and gabapentin was suboptimal, so further studies are needed to select the patients with refractory GERC suitable for precise treatment using these two neuromodulators.