We report a novel computer method for automatic labeling of structures in 3D MRI data sets using expert anatomical knowledge that is coded in fuzzy sets and fuzzy rules. The method first identifies major structures and then uses spatial relationships to these landmarks to recognize other structures. This labeling process simulates the iterative process that we ourselves use to locate structures in images. We demonstrate its application in three data sets, labeling brain MRI by locating the longitudinal and lateral fissures and the central sulci and then determining boundaries for the frontal lobes. Our method is adaptable to the identification of other anatomical structures.