In this paper, a fuzzy adaptive output feedback control scheme based on fuzzy adaptive observer is proposed to control robotic systems with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. It is supposed that only the joint positions of the robotic system can be measured, whereas the joint velocities are unknown and unmeasured. First, a fuzzy adaptive nonlinear observer is presented to estimate the joint velocities of robotic systems, and the observation errors are analyzed using strictly positive real approach and Lyapunov stability theory. Next, based on the observed joint velocities, a fuzzy adaptive output feedback controller is developed to guarantee stability of closed-loop system and achieve a certain tracking performance. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, it is proved that all the signals in closed-loop system are bounded. Finally, simulation examples on a two-link robotic manipulator are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed method.