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Fungal infections of the immunocompromised host: clinical and laboratory aspects.

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PMC
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  • Research Article
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  • Medicine

Abstract

Cocci_FactSheet_SW_US-pg1 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 Nu m be r o f r ep or te d c as es Number of US valley fever cases, 1995-2011 An estimated 150,000 more cases go undiagnosed every year. More than 70% of cases occur in Arizona and 25% occur in California.1 Coccidioidomycosis, a fungal disease called “cocci” or “valley fever,” is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the southwestern US. Fungal pneumonia: a silent epidemic Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) National Center for Emerging & Zoonotic Infectious Diseases Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/ • In 2011, more than 20,000 cases were reported in the US, twice as many cases as tuberculosis. • Nearly 75% of valley fever victims miss work or school for about two weeks.2 • More than 40% of valley fever victims are hospitalized. The average cost of a hospital stay for valley fever is almost $50,000.2 A costly problem Challenges arise in unpredictable ways • More people exposed to Coccidioides due to increased travel and relocation to endemic areas • Changes in temperature and rainfall can affect the growth and distribution of the fungus • Changes in how cases are being detected and reported i From soil to lungs Valley fever occurs in people who live in or have traveled to areas where Coccidioides is endemic, or native and common n the environment. It is found most often in the southwestern United States (especially Arizona and California) and parts of Mexico, Central America, and South America. Valley fever is an illness caused by the fungus Coccidioides, which lives in soil. People can become infected by inhaling fungal spores. This can cause flu-like symptoms that may last from weeks to months. Common symptoms. Unusual cause. Because the symptoms (fever, cough, headache, rash, muscle a

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