Injury to a peripheral nerve can cause loss of sensory and motor function, and if the injury is very severe where the nerve undergoes neurotmesis, unassisted nerve regeneration may not occur. In this case, where the gap between nerve segments is too large to carry out a direct end to end suture, a graft is sutured to bridge the gap between sectioned nerve segments. The autologous nerve graft, where a portion of a less important nerve from the same patient is removed and grafted between nerve segments, continues to be the gold standard procedure for nerve repair. However, there are several drawbacks of this technique including a second surgical procedure, loss of function at the donor site, possibility of developing a painful neuroma at the donor site, and the 50% success rate of autografts used in large gaps. There is therefore a need for a tissue engineered nerve graft that can replace the autograft, and this study aims to advance toward an effective autograft alternative. This PhD is presented as a three part study consisting first of the development of a novel nerve guidance conduit based on a tri-layered silk fibroin nanofiber material comprised of a complex organization including two aligned fiber surfaces and a randomly deposited fiber interior to improve the mechanical properties of the material while not compromising the guidance capabilities of aligned nanofibers for nerve regeneration. The material is then used to fabricate a multi-channeled tube with an additional “jacket layer” in order to facilitate surgical implantation. This NGC has been submitted to be patented on July 12, 2017 and is the subject of the second article submitted for review for publication. The second part of this study explores the different possibilities of the functionalization of the material in order to improve the effectiveness for nerve regeneration. This study explores functionalizing the silk fibroin with a second protein, several growth factors, and nanoparticles that all have potential to add favorable properties to the natural biocompatible silk fibroin material. The final part of this study tests the effectiveness of growth factor-embedded silk fibroin NGCs for peripheral nerve regeneration in comparison with non-functionalized silk fibroin devices and a direct suture to simulate results obtained with an autograft. Three different techniques for the evaluation of nerve regeneration were used in order to produce a more comprehensive analysis. As there are many mechanisms involved in nerve regeneration, only one or two analysis techniques cannot paint a complete picture of the success of nerve regeneration. Therefore, histological analyses, electromyography analyses, and motion capture analyses were carried out and considered together in order to make a conclusion on the level of nerve regeneration success during this study. The conclusions from this study were that a NGC functionalized with a combination of growth factors appeared to exhibit the most successful nerve regeneration and functional recovery.