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Functional Study of the Vitamin K Cycle Enzymes in Live Cells.

Authors
  • Tie, J-K1
  • Stafford, D W2
  • 1 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States. Electronic address: [email protected]
  • 2 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Methods in enzymology
Publication Date
2017
Volume
584
Pages
349–394
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/bs.mie.2016.10.015
PMID: 28065270
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation, an essential posttranslational modification catalyzed by gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, is required for the biological functions of proteins that control blood coagulation, vascular calcification, bone metabolism, and other important physiological processes. Concomitant with carboxylation, reduced vitamin K (KH2) is oxidized to vitamin K epoxide (KO). KO must be recycled back to KH2 by the enzymes vitamin K epoxide reductase and vitamin K reductase in a pathway known as the vitamin K cycle. Our current knowledge about the enzymes of the vitamin K cycle is mainly based on in vitro studies of each individual enzymes under artificial conditions, which are of limited usefulness in understanding how the complex carboxylation process is carried out in the physiological environment. In this chapter, we review the current in vitro activity assays for vitamin K cycle enzymes. We describe the rationale, establishment, and application of cell-based assays for the functional study of these enzymes in the native cellular milieu. In these cell-based assays, different vitamin K-dependent proteins were designed and stably expressed in mammalian cells as reporter proteins to accommodate the readily used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for carboxylation efficiency evaluation. Additionally, recently emerged genome-editing techniques TALENs and CRISPR-Cas9 were used to knock out the endogenous enzymes in the reporter cell lines to eliminate the background. These cell-based assays are easy to scale up for high-throughput screening of inhibitors of vitamin K cycle enzymes and have been successfully used to clarify the genotypes and their clinical phenotypes of enzymes of the vitamin K cycle.

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