Human cytomegalovirus has a complex double-stranded DNA genome of ≈240,000 bp that contains ≈150 ORFs likely to encode proteins, most of whose functions are not well understood. We have used an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome to introduce 413 defined insertion and substitution mutations into the human cytomegalovirus AD169 genome by random and site-directed transposon mutagenesis. Mutations were produced in all unique ORFs with a high probability of encoding proteins for which mutants have not been previously documented and in many previously characterized ORFs. The growth of selected mutants was assayed in cultured human fibroblasts, and we now recognize 41 essential, 88 nonessential, and 27 augmenting ORFs. Most essential and augmenting genes are located in the central region, and nonessential genes generally cluster near the ends of the viral genome.