Glycomics refers to the comprehensive analysis of glycans. Recent progress in glycotechnology enables the determination of a variety of biological functions of glycans. Among different glycosylation patterns, certain types of aberrant glycosylation are linked to cancer and/or inflammation, and thus have biological importance. Glycotechnology has been applied to many fields of medical science, including hepatology. In particular, dramatic changes in glycosylation are observed in the progression of liver diseases. As the liver produces so many serum glycoproteins, changes in glycosylation of these proteins might provide useful disease biomarkers. Furthermore, many patients with genetic diseases of glycosylation who have liver dysfunction have been found as a result from whole genome sequencing, and various kinds of glycotherapy have been developed, especially in immunotherapy. In this review, we describe our basic knowledge of glycobiology and discuss the application of these data to medical science, especially hepatology. © 2019 The Japan Society of Hepatology.