Strains of Fusarium proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. anthophilum, F. annulatum, F. succisae, F. beomiforme, F. dlamini, F. napiforme, and F. nygamai from a variety of substrates and geographic areas were tested for the production of fumonisin B1 in culture. None of the cultures of F. subglutinans (0 of 23), F. annulatum (0 of 1), F. succisae (0 of 2), or F. beomiforme (0 of 15) produced fumonisin B1 in culture. Strains of F. proliferatum (19 of 31; 61%) produced fumonisin B1 in amounts ranging from 155 to 2,936 ppm, strains of F. anthophilum (3 of 17; 18%) produced fumonisin B1 in amounts ranging from 58 to 613 ppm, strains of F. dlamini (5 of 9; 56%) produced fumonisin B1 in amounts ranging from 42 to 82 ppm, strains of F. napiforme (5 of 33; 15%) produced fumonisin B1 in amounts ranging from 16 to 479 ppm, and strains of F. nygamai (10 of 27; 37%) produced fumonisin B1 in amounts ranging from 17 to 7,162 ppm. Of the species tested, F. proliferatum is the most important producer of fumonisin B1 because of its association with corn and animal mycotoxicoses such as porcine pulmonary edema. F. napiforme and F. nygamai also may be important because of their association with the food grains millet and sorghum. At present, F. anthophilum and F. dlamini are of minor importance because they are not associated with corn or other major food grains and have only a limited geographic range. This is the first report of the production of fumonisins by F. anthophilum, F. dlamini, and F. napiforme.