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Fulminant hepatic failure in a patient testing re-positive for SARS-CoV-2: a case report

Authors
  • Aldossary, Bader1
  • Hassan, Ali2
  • Moussa, Mohamed1
  • Alsaif, Hind S.1
  • Alfaraj, Dunya1
  • 1 Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia , Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia)
  • 2 Salmaniya Medical Complex, Manama, Bahrain , Manama (Bahrain)
Type
Published Article
Journal
International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication Date
Apr 21, 2021
Volume
14
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s12245-021-00349-6
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundInfection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may not elicit lifelong protective immunity and reinfection could occur. Liver function impairment is a common manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, acute hepatic failure in the setting of COVID-19 is very rare.Case presentationWe report the case of a 47-year-old woman who presented with acute abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal examination revealed a soft and lax abdomen with mild tenderness in the right upper quadrant. The patient recovered from COVID-19 2 months previously with negative results on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Laboratory investigations revealed markedly elevated transaminases with normal results on viral hepatitis serology panel and undetectable blood paracetamol level. Prior to admission, the patient underwent RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2, which revealed a positive result. The patient experienced rapid deterioration in the neurological status with a remarkable increase in the liver enzyme levels. Despite aggressive resuscitation, the patient suffered irreversible cardiac arrest and died.ConclusionFulminant hepatic failure is a rare manifestation in patients with re-positive RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for hepatic injury with active monitoring of liver enzymes.

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