Hepatitis B virus reactivation during immunosuppressive therapies can lead to liver failure with very limited treatment options available. We report here on two cases of severe hepatitis B reactivation during chemotherapy including rituximab for B cell lymphoma which were treated with liver or liver-cell transplantation. Liver function was normal and HBV infection was unknown in both patients before chemotherapy was started. Impaired liver function became apparent after 4 and 6 courses of chemotherapy, respectively, and both patients experienced fulminant hepatic failure despite antiviral treatment with lamivudine or entecavir. Patient A underwent liver transplantation after documentation of complete remission of the lymphoma and survived without any evidence for hepatitis B recurrence. Patient B received 4 courses of hepatocyte transplantation but did not survive. These cases underline the importance of anti-HBc screening in patients receiving immunosuppressive treatments in particular when rituximab is given. Pre-emptive antiviral treatments should be administered since delayed antiviral treatment is frequently unable to prevent liver failure.