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From internationalization to evolution: The Uppsala model at 40 years

Authors
  • Vahlne, Jan-Erik1
  • Johanson, Jan2
  • 1 University of Gothenburg, School of Business, Economics and Law, Centre of International Business Studies, Göteborg, 40530, Sweden , Göteborg (Sweden)
  • 2 Uppsala University, Department of Business Studies, Uppsala, Sweden , Uppsala (Sweden)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of International Business Studies
Publisher
Palgrave Macmillan UK
Publication Date
Nov 28, 2017
Volume
48
Issue
9
Pages
1087–1102
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1057/s41267-017-0107-7
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

The original Uppsala model that was published in 1977 explains the internationalization process of firms. We have further developed the model several times in the intervening years. The present article is our latest effort: a general model of the evolution of the multinational business enterprise (MBE), from early steps abroad to being a global firm. The updated, augmented model explains MBE evolution in general, not only characteristics of the internationalization process in a narrow sense. We believe that the newest iteration, anchored in process ontology, will be useful in conducting longitudinal empirical studies.

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