Even today the name of F.D. von Recklinghausen is often mentioned in connection with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. He was one of the first physicians and scientists to render outstanding services to the classification of structural changes of bones, and in many aspects his work remains valid today. He succeeded through precise and comparative studies in making the disease and symptoms of primary hyperparathyroidism known and thus distinguishing it from other known structural bone diseases. He also described the phenomenon of "bone remodeling" which has become relevant today again. Although his written macroscopic and microscopic observations include meticulously precise differentiations which make it difficult to study them today, they are still of interest in order to follow his basic ideas. This article does not constitute a comprehensive biography, but it contains a description of F.D. von Recklinghausen's important work on bone pathology against the background of the main stages of his life.