Chromosomal 7q34 duplication and BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion is a characteristic genetic alteration in pilocytic astrocytomas. 7q34 gain appears to be common in diffuse astrocytomas, but its significance is unclear. We assessed BRAF gain and BRAF mutations in 123 low-grade diffuse gliomas, including 55 diffuse astrocytomas, 18 oligoastrocytomas and 50 oligodendrogliomas. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed BRAF gain in 17/50 (34%) oligodendrogliomas, a significantly higher frequency than in diffuse astrocytomas (7/55; 13%; P = 0.0112). BRAF gain was common in low-grade diffuse gliomas with 1p/19q loss (39%) and those lacking any of the genetic alterations analyzed (31%), but was rare in those with TP53 mutations (2%). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association between 1p/19q loss and BRAF gain (P = 0.0032) and a significant negative association between TP53 mutations and BRAF gain (P = 0.0042). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of 26 low-grade diffuse gliomas with BRAF gain additionally revealed BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion in one oligodendroglioma. Sequencing of cDNA in 17 low-grade diffuse gliomas showed BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion in another oligodendroglioma. A BRAF(V600E) mutation was also detected in one oligodendroglioma, and a BRAF(A598V) in one diffuse astrocytoma. These results suggest that low-grade diffuse gliomas with 1p/19q loss have frequent BRAF gains, and a small fraction of oligodendrogliomas may show BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion.