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Frequency of Thrombocytopenia and Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia in Patients Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Compared With Cardiopulmonary Bypass and the Limited Sensitivity of Pretest Probability Score

Authors
  • Arachchillage, Deepa RJ;
  • Laffan, Mike;
  • Khanna, Sanjay;
  • Vandenbriele, Christophe; 50496;
  • Kamani, Farah;
  • Passariello, Maurizio;
  • Rosenberg, Alex;
  • Aw, TC;
  • Banya, Winston;
  • Ledot, Stephane;
  • Patel, Brijesh;
Publication Date
May 01, 2020
Source
Lirias
Keywords
License
Unknown
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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To ascertain: 1) the frequency of thrombocytopenia and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia; 2) positive predictive value of the Pretest Probability Score in identifying heparin-induced thrombocytopenia; and 3) clinical outcome of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in adult patients receiving venovenous- or venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, compared with cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: A single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study from January 2016 to April 2018. SETTING: Tertiary referral center for cardiac and respiratory failure. PATIENTS: Patients who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for more than 48 hours or had cardiopulmonary bypass during specified period. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Clinical and laboratory data were collected retrospectively. Pretest Probability Score and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia testing results were collected prospectively. Mean age (± SD) of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and cardiopulmonary bypass cohorts was 45.4 (± 15.6) and 64.9 (± 13), respectively (p < 0.00001). Median duration of cardiopulmonary bypass was 4.6 hours (2-16.5 hr) compared with 170.4 hours (70-1,008 hr) on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Moderate and severe thrombocytopenia were more common in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation compared with cardiopulmonary bypass throughout (p < 0.0001). Thrombocytopenia increased in cardiopulmonary bypass patients on day 2 but was normal in 83% compared with 42.3% of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients at day 10. Patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation also followed a similar pattern of platelet recovery following cessation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The frequency of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and cardiopulmonary bypass were 6.4% (19/298) and 0.6% (18/2,998), respectively (p < 0.0001). There was no difference in prevalence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients on venovenous-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (8/156, 5.1%) versus venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (11/142, 7.7%) (p = 0.47). The positive predictive value of the Pretest Probability Score in identifying heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients post cardiopulmonary bypass and on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was 56.25% (18/32) and 25% (15/60), respectively. Mortality was not different with (6/19, 31.6%) or without (89/279, 32.2%) heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (p = 0.79). CONCLUSIONS: Thrombocytopenia is already common at extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is more frequent in both venovenous- and venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation compared with cardiopulmonary bypass. Positive predictive value of Pretest Probability Score in identifying heparin-induced thrombocytopenia was lower in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia had no effect on mortality. / status: published

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