Hierarchical studies on the folding of protein G B1 domain have shown that the C-terminal fragment (C16) has a considerable amount of beta-hairpin structure that exchanges between the folded and unfolded states at room temperature, and that the C16 fragment binds noncovalently to an N-terminal fragment (N40) under physiological conditions. Those studies have led us to the hypothesis that the amphipathic beta-hairpin structure of C16 initiates folding of the domain. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the folding mechanism of the domain, we designed a mutant of C16 (SS16ox) with a disulfide bond between residues 41 and 56, and then examined the interaction of the mutant with N40 by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and by thermal denaturation studies using circular dichroism. SS16ox strongly interacted with N40, with an equilibrium constant, KD, that was 7-fold higher than wild-type. The association rate constant, kon, of SS16ox was 8.7-fold higher than that of wild-type. This strong interaction can be explained by the entropic effect of the disulfide bond. The introduction of the disulfide bond into C16 stabilizes the beta-hairpin structure of C16, accelerates the association rate with N40, and then stabilizes the whole complex. These results support a hypothetical folding mechanism of protein G where the amphipathic beta-hairpin structure of C16 acts as a nucleus and accelerates folding of the whole molecule.