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The fraction of total hand surface area involved in young children's outdoor hand-to-object contacts.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Environmental Research
1096-0953
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
108
Issue
3
Pages
294–299
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2008.07.010
PMID: 18760778
Source
Medline

Abstract

Information on the fraction of total hand surface area touching a contaminated object is necessary in accurately estimating contaminant (e.g., pesticides, pathogens) loadings onto the hands during hand-to-object contacts. While several existing physical-stochastic human exposure models require such surface area data to estimate dermal and non-dietary ingestion exposure, there are very limited data sets. This paper provides statistical distributions of fractional surface areas (FSAs) for children's outdoor hand contacts. These distributions were constructed by combining information collected from two distinct studies exploring children's activity patterns and quantifying hand contact surface area. Results show that for outdoor contacts with "All Objects", a range of 0.13-0.27 captured median FSAs, while a range of 0.12-0.24 captured time-weighted FSAs. Overall, an FSA of 0.31 captured 80-100% of FSAs involved in each child's outdoor hand contacts, depending upon the object of interest. These values are much lower than the often conservative assumptions of up to 1 (i.e., the entire hand) that researchers currently make regarding FSAs involved in indoor and outdoor contacts [USEPA, 1997. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) for residential exposure assessments. Contract no. 68-W6-0030. http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf].

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