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The Fraction of Rhinovirus Detections Attributable to Mild and Severe Respiratory Illness in a Setting of High Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence, South Africa, 2013-2015.

Authors
  • Hellferscee, Orienka1, 2
  • Treurnicht, Florette K1
  • Walaza, Sibongile1, 3
  • Du Plessis, Mignon1
  • Von Gottberg, Anne1, 2
  • Wolter, Nicole1, 2
  • Moyes, Jocelyn1, 3
  • Dawood, Halima4, 5
  • Variava, Ebrahim6, 7, 8
  • Pretorius, Marthi1, 9
  • Venter, Marietjie1, 10
  • Cohen, Cheryl1, 3
  • Tempia, Stefano1, 11, 12
  • 1 Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg.
  • 2 School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
  • 3 School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
  • 4 Department of Medicine, Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Hospital.
  • 5 Department of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg.
  • 6 Department of Medicine, Klerksdorp-Tshepong Hospital Complex, Klerksdorp.
  • 7 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg, South Africa. , (South Africa)
  • 8 Perinatal HIV Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. , (South Africa)
  • 9 Technical Research and Development, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland. , (Switzerland)
  • 10 Center for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, University of Pretoria, South Africa. , (South Africa)
  • 11 Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. , (Georgia)
  • 12 Influenza Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Pretoria, South Africa. , (South Africa)
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Publication Date
May 05, 2019
Volume
219
Issue
11
Pages
1697–1704
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy725
PMID: 30590585
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The association of rhinovirus (RV) detection to illness is poorly understood. We enrolled case patients hospitalized with severe respiratory illness (SRI) at 2 hospitals and outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and asymptomatic individuals (controls) from 2 affiliated clinics during 2013-2015. We compared the RV prevalence among ILI and SRI cases to those of controls stratified by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus using penalized logistic regression. The attributable fraction (AF) was calculated. During 2013-2015, RV was detected in 17.4% (368/2120), 26.8% (979/3654), and 23.0% (1003/4360) of controls, ILI cases, and SRI cases, respectively. The RV AF (95% confidence interval) was statistically significant among children aged <5 years (ILI: 44.6% [30.7%-55.7%] and SRI: 50.3% [38.6%-59.9%]; P < .001) and individuals aged ≥5 years (ILI: 62.9% [54.4%-69.8%] and SRI: 51.3% [38.7%-61.3%]; P < .001) as well as among HIV-infected (ILI: 59.9% [45.8%-70.3%] and SRI: 39.8% [22.3%-53.3%]; P < .001) and HIV-uninfected (ILI: 53.6% [44.7%-61.1%] and SRI: 55.3% [45.6%-63.2%]; P < .001) individuals. Although RV detection was common among controls, it was also associated with a substantial proportion of clinical illness across age groups, irrespective of HIV status. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: [email protected]

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