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Four release tests exhibit variable silver stability from nanoparticle-modified reverse osmosis membranes.

Authors
  • Bi, Yuqiang1
  • Han, Bingru1
  • Zimmerman, Sean1
  • Perreault, Francois1
  • Sinha, Shahnawaz1
  • Westerhoff, Paul2
  • 1 Nanosystems Engineering Research Center for Nanotechnology-Enabled Water Treatment, School of Sustainable Engineering and The Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-3005, USA.
  • 2 Nanosystems Engineering Research Center for Nanotechnology-Enabled Water Treatment, School of Sustainable Engineering and The Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-3005, USA. Electronic address: [email protected]
Type
Published Article
Journal
Water research
Publication Date
Oct 15, 2018
Volume
143
Pages
77–86
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2018.06.036
PMID: 29940364
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Modification of polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) may effectively control biofouling. While silver leaching tests are usually performed during membrane development, the lack of common testing protocols limits cross-comparison among different labs. We compare four release tests to quantify the release of dissolved and nanoparticulate silver from polyamide RO membranes prepared through in situ surface functionalization: (1) batch immersion, (2) dead-end filtration, (3) cross-flow filtration, and (4) low-pressure water jetting. For the first time, we demonstrated the possibility of AgNP release to membrane-treated water through direct AgNP detachment. When using Nanopure water as an extraction solution, water jetting resulted in the fastest silver mass release, while dead-end filtration caused the slowest release based on the initial release kinetic data. Dead-end filtration exhibited silver mass release an order of magnitude lower than the other three tests. Although cross-flow filtration may best represent the RO membrane operation, quantifying silver release suffers from poor mass balance due to the adsorption of dissolved silver by various reactor components and large volumes of water usage. A commonly applied batch immersion method was low cost and easily performed, but may not induce hydraulic shear sufficient for AgNP detachment from a RO membrane. The information on silver release behavior may depend on the specific test, which is important for assessing antimicrobial efficacy and service life of the nanoparticle-functionalized membranes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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