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[Formula: see text]Executive functioning and its relation to ASD and ADHD symptomatology in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

Authors
  • de Sonneville, Leo M J1, 2
  • Hidding, Elske1
  • van Engeland, Herman3
  • Vorstman, Jacob A S3
  • Sijmens-Morcus, Monique E J1
  • Swaab, Hanna1, 2
  • 1 a Department of Clinical Child and Adolescent Studies , Leiden University , Leiden , The Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 2 b Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition , Leiden , The Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 3 c Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolph Magnus , University Medical Centre Utrecht , Utrecht , The Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Child Neuropsychology
Publisher
Informa UK (Taylor & Francis)
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2018
Volume
24
Issue
1
Pages
1–19
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1080/09297049.2016.1221064
PMID: 27608887
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velo-cardio-facial-syndrome) are at risk for the developmental disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, the relation between executive functioning (EF) and the severity of ADHD and ASD symptoms is examined, since EF is known to be important in relation to emotional and behavioral problems. The participants consist of 58 children (38 females) with a mean age of 13.5 years (SD 2.6). Standardized assessment was used to evaluate the severity of ASD and ADHD symptomatology. The major aspects of EF, i.e., cognitive flexibility, inhibition, sustained attention, distractibility, working memory and reaction speed, were evaluated. The profile of EF in 22q11DS was found to be characterized by weaker performance compared to the norms on all subdomains of EF. Poor cognitive flexibility and inhibition, as well as high distractibility, were found to be related to more severe ASD symptoms, while poor quality of sustained attention and high distractibility were found to be related to more severe ADHD symptoms. It is concluded that children with 22q11DS experience impairments in EF, and that the degree of impairment on specific EF subdomains is related to the severity of ASD and/or ADHD symptomatology. These results may help in defining the mediating role of neurocognitive dysfunctions in the development of social and behavioral problems in 22q11DS.

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