AbstractIdentifying the mechanism and formation time of a mud volcano is one of the most debatable issues concerning the geological phenomenon of mud volcanism. As of now, the use of 3D seismic data is a unique technique that allows documenting the main formation stages of mud volcanism and revealing the connection of this process with the formation of hydrocarbon deposits in the South Caspian Basin (SCB). It is shown that the formation of mud volcanoes began after the accumulation of the Maikop (Oligocene–Lower Miocene) series stratum and continued in parallel with the deposition of sediments. As the thickness of the sedimentary cover increased, mud volcanoes periodically became active. A paragenetic relationship may perhaps exist between the formation of mud volcanoes and the formation of petroleum hydrocarbons.