This study was designed to determine the effect of source combinations on formaldehyde levels under whole-house conditions. Evaluations were conducted on particleboard (applied as subflooring) and hardwood plywood panelling (applied as a wall covering) both singly and in combination, and on urea-formaldehyde foam insulation and particleboard. Formaldehyde source combination/interaction evaluations revealed several different outcomes, including no augmentation of formaldehyde levels, a slight augmentation (30-50%) and complete addivity. Additivity was observed for regular and low emission grade particleboard and hardwood plywood combinations and for urea-formaldehyde foam insulation and particleboard subflooring. In contrast, controlled chamber studies employing samples of the same wood materials revealed no additive effects. Results of these studies raise questions about the reliability of using laboratory evaluations alone to predict formaldehyde levels under real-world residential conditions.