Within the emerging field of stem cells there is a need for an environment that can regulate cell activity, to slow down differentiation or proliferation, in vitro or in vivo while remaining invisible to the immune system. By creating a nanoenvironment surrounding PC12 cells, Schwann cells, and neural precursor cells (NPCs), we were able to control the proliferation, elongation, differentiation, and maturation in vitro. We extended the method, using self-assembling nanofiber scaffold (SAPNS), to living animals with implants in the brain and spinal cord. Here we show that when cells are placed in a defined system we can delay their proliferation, differentiation, and maturation depending on the density of the cell population, density of the matrix, and the local environment. A combination of SAPNS and young cells can be implanted into the central nervous system (CNS), eliminating the need for immunosuppressants.